CONTROL OF ALGAE AND BACTERIA
SCI-62® Algicide / Bactericide will control 90 to 98% of the micro-organisms encountered in reservoirs, ponds, lagoons, and will do so more cost effectively than any other chemical. SCI-62® is a liquid and comes packaged ready for use. It can simply be added to a body of water by pouring in the needed amount or sprayed onto the surface. When applied at the proper time and according to the directions in the proper amounts, SCI-62® is non-injurious to useful plant and animal life and is often missing in everyday diets. Deficiencies of copper are generally added as a nutrient to most diets. Potable drinking water treated with SCI-62®, for example, is an excellent source of necessary copper and if applied according to directions will never exceed the amount of copper needed as a minimum daily requirement for humans, animals or plant life.
POTABLE DRINKING WATER; RESERVOIR TREATMENT
In the treatment of water, many tastes and odors are encountered which are difficult to combat. Carbon or prechlorination, and chloramines are treatments currently used to control these problems. Many times, however, these treatments will not give complete control. SCI-62® will control the algae and bacteria in reservoirs that are the primary causes of bad tastes and odors, without the residual taste and odors of chlorine. The slow kill of algae and bacteria accomplished with the use of SCI-62®, does not allow the secretions of oils that are reated by chlorine, and chloramines. Since the active ingredient Cu++ is attracted to the negative charged microorganism the cell wall membrane is penetrated and ionizations occur due to pH changes within the cell. This slow kill of the algae and bacteria greatly reduces taste, odor, and trihalomethanes problems normally associated with the use of chlorine.
Algae or bacteria, when killed by chlorinating, do not appreciably coagulate or settle to the bottom of the reservoir, this in turn shortens filter runs. Algae and bacteria eliminated by SCI-62® does settle to the bottom of the reservoirs and are removed in the sedimentation basins, thus prolonging filter runs.
One gallon of SCI-62® injected into one million gallons of water is usually enough for the complete kill of algae and bacteria, thereby controlling taste and odor problems. There have been research cases requiring as many as three treatments to provide adequate taste and odor control or additional amounts added. In all cases the unpleasant odor and tastes were derived from organic materials (See Levels Required to Control Algae/Bacteria).
One of the important factors in the control of algae in a reservoir is timing. Algae is allowed growth and then killed by the use of SCI-62® in the latter parts of the seasons verses controlling from the beginning of the season is more costly. Early treatment reduces algae toxins created by algaecides after algae is in full bloom.
The best microscopic analysis generally comes from a control laboratory. Whenever algae is present and the temperature is favorable for continuous growth, daily examination, and analysis is imperative. Do not allow the algae to get out of hand, Treat Early.
Temperature plays an important factor in algae growth. Experienced personnel may anticipate necessary applications. Studies of temperature in correlation with algae growth reveals critical levels occur in the northern part of the country between spring and fall and can be year round in the warmer climates. There is little or no growth below 34°F. The high growth point appears as temperatures progress upward from 34°. Critical growth points will vary with each reservoir and each species of algae. Algae will usually start its growth in shallow areas; examinations of many locations in a reservoir are helpful.
LEVELS REQUIRED TO CONTROL ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND OTHER MICROORGANISMS IN POTABLE DRINKING WATER
The amount of SCI-62® needed for control varies with the organism and its concentration. When continuous application is used, levels can be at the minimum. The following tables show the amount of SCI-62® required to control certain organisms. As the tables listed on pages 4, 5 and 6 show, SCI-62® is the most effective treatment.
|Organisms – Odor Diatomaceae:||Parts Per Million||Pints Per Mil. Gals.|
|0.24 – 0.04||1.0 – 1.24|
|Synedra||.72 – .1||2.5 – 3.5|
|Tabellaria||.024 – 0.1||1.0 – 3.5|
|.1 – .4||3.5 – 13.8|
|.024 – .05||1.0 – 1.72|
|.01 – .04||.33 – 1.3|
|Coelastrum||.010 – .066||2.32|
|Eudorina||.4 – 2||13.8 – 69.2|
|Panodrina||.4 – 20||13.8 – 69.2|
|Anabaena||.024 – .096||1 – 3.33|
|.024 – .1||1 – 3.5|
|.024 – .05||1 – 1.72|
|.04 – .066||1.24 – 2.32|
|.04 – .066||1|
|Osillaria||.04 – .1||1.24 – 3.5|
|Creothix||.066 – .01||2.32 – 3.5|
|.048 – .066||2 – 2.32|
|.072 – .2||3 – 6.92|
|Chara||.02 – .1||.67|
|Nitella, flexilis||.02 – .036||.67 – 1.25|
|.06 – .16||2.2 – 6.5|
|Salmonella||.25 – 1||32 – 133|
SAFE DOSAGE WHERE FISH MUST BE PROTECTED
The greatest danger to fish life resulting from the use of SCI-62® is not from SCI-62® itself, but from dead algae. SCI-62® kills algae that can cling to the fishes’ gills, starving the oxygen supply needed for survival. Anytime a body of water becomes heavily infested with algae, there is a possibility of fish loss when the alga is killed. This can be avoided if the alga is controlled from the beginning of the season and is not allowed to reach a prolific stage of growth. SCI-62® treatment should be started in the early spring, except in warmer climates where treatment at regular intervals is necessary year round. If a reservoir is allowed to become heavily infested before SCI-62® is used, fish life can be protected by starting treatments at very low levels with SCI-62® being applied. This will allow the killing of algae to take place at lesser amounts and create a slower kill. Treatment must be repeated on a regular basis when lesser amounts are used. When control is reached, a regular schedule must be followed. Even in warmer climates, algae are less prevalent during certain times of the year. This would be the ideal time to begin treatment to prevent fish injury. When the slower method has been enforced, it is more expensive and requires more time then if the growth has been prevented by the use of SCI-62® in earlier spring periods before the algae got to a prolific stage. The following table shows the limiting levels of SCI-62® for fish life.
This table is only a guideline; always contact your local D.N.R. to find out what the limiting amounts are in your area.
LIMITING SAFE DOSAGE OF SCI-62® FOR FISH
|FISH||PARTS PER MILLION||PINTS PER MIL. GALS.|
APPLICATION TO RESERVOIRS
There are several procedures for treating with SCI-62® and all are satisfactory. The amount necessary can be calculated from the “Pints per Millions Gallons” column in relationship to the targeted organism. SCI-62® has a lateral convection movement of approximately 20 feet per hour. The more evenly a given amount of SCI-62® can be applied the faster the results will be. This can be accomplished by adding the SCI-62® in several locations. Application by aircraft is an acceptable procedure for larger reservoirs. Optional control of organisms is only when SCI-62® is completely dispersed.
CONTINUOUS APPLICATION OF SCI-62®
To properly control microorganisms in flowing water where bulk treatment is not feasible, a continuous injection system should be used.
Two methods of injection are recommended: Gravity dropping from a regulating valve that in turn can be converted to “Pints per Million Gallons of Water” or an approved injection pump calibrated to “Pints per Hour per Million Gallons of Water” are both accepted. These are practical and economical methods. The agitation provided by moving water is all that is required for complete dispersion of the SCI-62®. The injection pump system will more often be accepted when applying SCI-62® into a fresh water transfer pipe. The dripped system is much more economical and practical to use if it can be applied to a non-pressurized system before a pump lifts the water and pressurizes it.
DRIPPER INJECTION SYSTEM (Low Volume)
For lower volumes of water production, it may be necessary to dilute the SCI-62® with water so a lesser amount of SCI-62® can be added with a drip system. A range of 5 to 60 drops per minute is easily obtained and the most accurate. For an example: If only one per dropper minute of SCI-62® was required for a particular application, one gallon of SCI-62® mixed with 9 gallon of water, would allow the one drop per minute to increase to 10. This would allow a much more accurate measurement of ten drops per minute measurement verses only one drop per minute.
Even in larger volumes of water that are measured in cubic feet per minute (CFM) or cubic feet per second (CFS) it may be necessary to dilute so that 5 to 60 drops per minute may be achieved.